What Is Important To Know About Getting A Homeland Security Associates Degree

Getting a Homeland Security Associates Degree is one of the most honorable educations out there today. It is well known that everyone in our great nation wants to feel safe and protected from unlawful members of society. Since the tragic events of September 11th, 2001 our citizens have been fearful of terrorism attacks and the increase in homeland security is vital. Soon after 9/11 the Department Of Homeland Security was established to keep our citizens safe from any unwanted attacks again. What the department of homeland security did was build the foundation for a more effective agency to handle any threats of terrorism here or aboard while coordinating activities with various other government agencies like the FBI, and CIA.

Usually, the type of person that works in this field is one that can become either emergency medical technician, police or some type of law enforcement agent. The most important thing that people who takes a security education is there ultimate awareness of threats that endanger our cities and towns across our great nation and how to respond them.

Working to protect our country domestically is one of the best things you can do for yourself. What an associate degree will prepare you for is an entry level position with our DHS or companies that partner with them. The skill set for these typical careers have to do with cyber security, law enforcement on our borders and international terrorism threats that happen from aboard. Usually, Homeland Security Professionals work in department offices, on our boarders, over sea, and in the air. You can rest assure that taking a security career direction is one of the most valuable career directions you can take because you are keeping America safe by patrolling our boarders and keeping American citizens out of harm’s way.

You can be proud of yourself working for the government that you are keeping our boarders that much more secure and you’ve helped pitch in with the fight against terrorism. There’s nothing that’s more rewarding. America needs you to feel safe as possible, from emergency situations to figuring out who will enter American your job is important asset to our government and its citizens.

How to Do Research for the Award of a PhD Degree in Management Studies?

The Main goals of Ph.D. research

The evaluators check for the certain important outcomes of the research for Ph.D.

(a)The main aim of effort for Ph.D. award should be creation of new knowledge.

(b)The insights should be useful to the industry or academic community.

(c ) It should bridge the gap between what the current knowledge is and what knowledge is required.

(d) It should clear the suspicions, or find answers to major questions which have been lingering in the minds of practitioners and academics for quite long. These questions are called ‘ dilemmas ‘ or ‘hypotheses’.

What does not qualify to be called ‘research for Ph.D.’:

1. Collection of material from different sources and writing a voluminous book does not qualify to be called ‘ Ph.D. research’. Ph.D. research is not about writing a book.

2. Writing a thesis based on a few books or a few newspaper articles or internet sites is not Ph.D. research.

3. Ph.D. is not a survey with some questions ( like: Are you married? How many children have you? How long are you employed? Which soap do you prefer? )or some kind of form- filling feedback. The research should use standard instruments (also called measures, scales, standard scales and published scales).

How to Go About Research for Ph. D. in Management Studies?

1. The researcher has to do extensive literature review; he has to download as many as 500 research articles from online libraries like: ebscohost, emeraldinsight, proquest, jostor etc. The primary purpose of literature review is: identification of research gaps. It means that you have to understand where extant research has stopped or what is left un-researched. The gap so found can be converted into hypotheses.

2. Hypotheses -framing (hypotheses formulation or identification of hypotheses) is the most critical part of research. Hypotheses are the research questions or dilemmas that the academic community is faced with and are waiting to be resolved by a scholar like you.

3. A hypothesis looks like a question. For example, ‘Are women more satisfied than men on their jobs?’ is a hypothesis. This is just an example. (This might have already been resolved by a research scholar like you.) Ideally, a Ph.D. thesis should comprise resolution of 10-50 most critical and interesting hypotheses.

4. Literature review reveals to you what hypotheses were already resolved and you don’t have to solve again. Literature does not mean anything that you find in the newspapers, magazines, websites, textbooks etc. Literature should primarily comprise the articles made based on empirical research. Empirical research is the one done based on experiments, observations and data collected with scientifically-developed research instruments. Research articles are found in scholarly journals, particularly online journals carried by online libraries like emeraldinsight, jstor, proquest, ebscohost etc.

5. Literature review, if diligently done, will provide the researcher with a proper background of his research for logical documentation. The background presented in the thesis will explain how the subject or research question evolved or how it was understood till now, where it stands now and what the researcher is going to do on that.

6. Literature review gives: (1) research questions/ hypotheses,(2) justification for the study/ research topic.

7. It is needless to say that research topic should be identified only after extensive literature review. It is quite sad that the universities ask for research topic and hypotheses at the time of application for enrollment itself (at a time when the candidate did not read even a single research article yet). Ideally, the universities should have identified research questions/hypotheses; but it is never the case with our universities over here.

8. While doing literature review, the important findings should be noted. These notes are the main part of the thesis under heads like: introduction, background, literature review, etc. All the referred articles should be properly listed under References. There should be cross linkages between the articles noted in the references list and text in the thesis. What you note in the main text is called ‘in-text citation’. It means that if you have something in the list of references, it should appear in the main text. In-text citation looks like (for example): (Meesala, 2011). This should be expanded in the references list. The way these references are noted is called, ‘academic referencing style’, ‘academic format’, ‘academic style’ etc.

9. The referencing style follows certain order in noting authors’ names, year of publication etc. and also the punctuation. Read the information by Googling. There are many academic formats like Harvard style, APA style, MLA style, CMS style etc.

10. Referencing for your thesis is very easy if you are familiar with how to use ‘References’ in MS Word 2007.

What To Do After Identification Of Hypotheses?

If there are no hypotheses identified, there is no research at all. Research on management issues is about resolving the hypotheses, not book-writing, mind you. Hypotheses formulation is followed by research design. Research design is about determining how to collect the data (primary data) and how it has to be analysed.

When hypotheses are clearly identified, the constructs are clearly identified and available in your hands. (Examples for constructs are: personality type, job satisfaction, engagement, commitment, and innovative behavior). In your research based on your hypotheses, you may have to deal with 15 to 20 constructs. For each construct, there is a specific, standard, published instrument ( also called ‘questionnaire’,’measure’, or ‘scale’). An instrument is a set of questions whose reliability and validity are already established. Visit this site for some scales. This is an e-handbook of management scales.

You can find many marketing scales in one book if you are affiliated to a big library like the one in Indian School of Business. Search Google for “Marketing Scales”.

What to do if ready research scales are not found in the published journals/books?

It is not possible to find a scale for every construct that is related to your research.

You have to construct the scale yourself.

The process is: (1) conduct a meeting of some experts, and with their help, generate as many statements as possible, on that particular construct. Delete all the duplicates. With the remaining items, conduct a pilot survey. Do item analysis by arranging all the responses to an item in ascending order and finding t-statistic for two groups of extreme responses. If the t-value is 1.75 or more, the item is good and can be retained. After that, for all the items in the construct, find out Cronbach’s alfa. If the Cronbach’s alfa is more than 0.60, the construct is reliable. Reliability means that the items (statements in the questions) are well-correlated. It is the average of item-to-item correlations. Further, the researcher has to work out Content Validity Index. If the index is more than 4.00, the scale can be considered a valid scale. Search Google for content validity index.

It should be noted with care, that questionnaire should relate to hypotheses but not any questions that occur to an innocent researcher’s mind.

The instrument, of course, should contain a section consisting of questions about the respondents’ profile like age, gender, income, length of service etc. The data on these items can be later checked for their relationship with other constructs.

Determination of Sample Size

Sample means the number of respondents from whom the responses on the questionnaires should be taken (with how many respondents the questionnaires are to be administered).

Sample size should be large enough. The number may be in the range of 200 to 1000. A large sample only is valid and valuable. The research done on a large sample only earns the respect of academics and research scholar community.

Sample size is determined by the size of the population, expected standard deviation, and confidence interval. There are formulae for sample determination. They are: Cocheran’s formula and Slovin’s formula. For learning more about them, Google-search those terms and use the formulae.

One important point to note is that the validity of your research is improved by randomized sample but not by selection of respondents by convenience.

Tabulation and Analysis

All the collected responses should be entered in an Excel Sheet. One row should be allotted to enter the data given in one questionnaire. For 500 filled questionnaires, 500 rows should be allotted. Data entered in Excel sheet can easily be imported into SPSS for analysis.

The tabulation of data is made easier by use of MS Excel. For high quality analysis, use SPSS (Statistical Procedures for Social Sciences). Even without SPSS software too, alternatively, Data Analysis Tool Pack in MS Excel can be used. With the help of this, descriptive statics, regression analysis, inter-correlations, Anova tests etc. can be done.

Report -Writing

For report-writing, skills in paragraph-writing, making the table of contents, and making of thesis statement, tie-in/transitional phrases, tie-in words, topic sentence etc. are critical. Particularly, English language should be idiomatic and grammatically correct.

MAT Degree – Is It Worth It?

Currently, a MAT degree, or Masters of Arts in Teaching, will bump up your prospects as a teacher-increasing your opportunities for leadership positions in your school, and most likely raising your pay at least eleven thousand dollars. Most Education universities offer programs that allow you to earn your teaching license and MAT at the same time so you can kill two birds with one stone and meet state requirements while making yourself more marketable. The MAT degree is meant to broaden and deepen teachers’ knowledge and instructional skills. MAT degree programs are designed to help new or experienced teachers hone their classroom skills, advance their careers, and refine their pedagogues, and bring teachers up-to-date on advancements in technology, theory, and methodology in the field of education.

So what’s the problem?

Studies show no correlation between advanced degrees and student performance. The current conversation about education reform is to link teacher’s pay to performance and not to credentials. Research professor Dan Goldhaber explains that research dating back to 1997 has shown that the students of teachers with master degrees show no better progress than students taught by teachers without advanced degrees.

Arguments are made that the Education colleges do not focus enough on experiential instruction, which makes a difference for the success of beginning teachers. Some argue that it isn’t enough to say “the more education, the better the teacher.”

Patrick Welsh, English teacher at T. C. Williams High School in Alexandria, Va., believes that credentialing has become an “absurd process,” that plagues schools who have to follow rules that don’t improve them. He sites personal examples he has seen of teachers or administrators without credentials that were better at their job than others with them. He calls the system of today, “A charade that confuses taking mind-numbing education courses with being a “highly qualified” teacher and has ended up filling schools with tenured mediocrity the kids don’t deserve.”

Katherine Merseth, the director of teacher education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, has even made the statement that of the nation’s 1,300 graduate teacher education programs, only about 100 were competently doing their job and the rest could “shut down tomorrow.” Historian Diane Ravitch called teachers’ coursework “the contentless curriculum,” and writer Elizabeth Green reports that the programs focus too much on broader teaching theories than on what she and many others consider more important-experiential training.

Even still, teachers and administrators continue to advocate for the MAT and often agree that it is worth the investment because of the incentives and because they believe that it can make a difference. “We are persuaded that university-based preparation is key to acquiring the knowledge and skill we value,” said C. Kent McGuire, dean at Temple University.

“We do look carefully at the institutions from which such degrees were conferred because not all advanced degrees are created equal,” McGuire explained further. One such preference is that MAT graduates have studied at research institutions.

McGuire also points out that it is important to make a distinction between the credentials used in selecting and hiring a teacher, and the information or criteria used to reward performance. “Training and experience factors, by themselves, turn out to be fairly weak predictors of effectiveness,” he said.

In addition, better teacher training has worked in other countries. Finland’s school reforms started in 1963 as an attempt to recover their economy. In 1979, reforms required teachers to earn their masters in theory and practice at one of their eight state universities at state expense. This decision, and the selectiveness of these schools, helped teaching in Finland become a prestigious profession. Now Finland’s Education system is one of the top in the world.

The real question is-what makes a good teacher? Welsh might agree that there is a certain talent some teachers have for communicating and connecting with their students, and connecting their students to the subject they are teaching. Education cannot teach talent; if someone is not born to be a teacher, or does not love teaching, then maybe a MAT is not for them. But if it is their calling, then more education can only improve their performance by increasing their pedagogical knowledge and confidence. A MAT degree doesn’t make a teacher a good teacher, but can aid a good teacher in becoming a great teacher. So is it worth it? The answer depends on your own idea of what the future holds for you, and whether you are willing to put in the effort to make it worth your experience.

Knowledge is an opportunity to expand on creative and innovative thinking and to always work towards improvement. Getting a masters or doctorate in education cannot inherently make a teacher better, but it can give them the opportunity and knowledge to work towards their goals.

4 Reasons To Earn A Business Degree

Acquiring a college education has become a standard requirement for many types of employment. Business degrees are one of the most versatile programs available. Students have the option to receive a broad education that covers everything from economics to statistical analysis. Some choose to take a more focused approach and become an expert in a specific field, such as accounting or marketing. These degrees are an investment in the future that can help any candidate to stand out from other applicants when searching for employment. There are four main reasons why an increasing number of students are pursuing this type of degree.


Business degrees teach the skills that are necessary to manage and run a company. These skills are always in demand, regardless of the actual position within a company. Graduates often receive more responsibility from employers because the degree indicates an increased capacity to handle complex situations. The general knowledge and skills taught in school make graduates a valuable asset in any position.

Career Advancement

Businesses that are looking for people to fill higher-level positions are looking for several specific qualities. These include leadership, initiative and reliability. Accredited business schools instill these qualities in every student. Companies that need managers, administrators or team leaders often require a degree as proof of ability. Individuals who do not hold a college degree often become ineligible for promotions beyond a certain point. Some businesses even rely on the education level of employees in order to determine job grades that affect salaries for different positions.

Future Specialization

Even business degrees focused on a specific area, such as accounting or marketing, are valuable because they provide a platform for future specialization. Future educational needs frequently become quite clear after leaving college and working within an industry for a few years. Any graduate has the option to return to school later in order to pursue a master of business administration (MBA) or another postgraduate degree to advance a career. A good undergraduate education in this field is even applicable to many other types of postgraduate programs, so an individual can steer their career in the right direction as employment requirements change.

Entrepreneurial Opportunities

Starting a new business is something that many people try. New companies may fail because of unexpected hurdles. Individuals who hold business degrees are uniquely qualified to start and run a company as an entrepreneur. College classes provide all of the knowledge needed about financing, accounting, budgeting and investment to avoid the mistakes that cause others to fail.