Contemporary Modern Perspectives in Psychology

Psychology has made tremendous progress since its humble beginnings in the late 19th century. Some schools such as behaviorism and psychoanalysis have undergone a lot of changes but are still popular and have a large number of followers.

Contemporary or present day psychology is a combination of the best ideas drawn from the contributions of all its founders. Some new ideas or perspectives have been added too.

Psychology perspectives refer to how psychology approaches or looks at different topics within its field. Modern psychology looks at the various issues relating to human behavior from five perspectives. These five major perspectives discussed by Teachers Training Program are:

1. The Biological Perspectives.

2. The Behavioral Perspectives.

3. The Cognitive Perspectives.

4. The Psychoanalytic Perspectives.

5. The Subjectivist Perspectives.

The Biological Perspectives

Psychologists have for long been interested in studying the relationship between our biological (body) systems and behavior. They have been especially keen to know the role of the brain with regard to human behavior. The brain which contains over 10 billion nerve cells with infinite connections between them, is, perhaps, the most complex structure in the universe.

The biological approach is concerned with understanding the role played by our brain in various psychological processes such as emotion, reasoning, learning, motivation and so on. It seeks to describe the neurological process that underline behavior and mental processes. For example, the biological perspective would attempt to understand and look at depression in terms of what chemical are produced in the brain and whether they are any abnormal changes in the levels of neurotransmitters. It would also study face recognition with regard to role played by the particular region of the brain such as the left or right hemisphere.

Thus, biological approach attempts to know which are the specific areas of the brain that influence or affect our behavior and how the nerves system, the hormones secreted by the different glands and other changes in our body affect the way we think, feel and behave.

The Behavioral Perspective

The behavioral approach focuses on explaining nearly all behavioral in terms of stimuli and responses and as resulting from conditioning and reinforcement. For example, a psychologist with a behavioral perspective would attempt to explain obesity as an outcome of people’s tendency to overeat (a specific response), in the presence of a specific stimuli (such as watching television).

According to the behavioral approach, human behaviors that are rewarded or rein forced are likely to be repeated again in the future. An example by Pre Primary Teachers Training, when a child hits another child (aggressive behavior) and is able to get the toy of the other child (behavior is rewarded), then the child is more likely to act aggressively in the future.

The Cognitive Perspective

The cognitive approach focuses on mental processes such as perceiving, remembering, reasoning, deciding, and problem solving.

The cognitive approach recognizes that in order to fully understand human behavior it is very important to study the role played by mental processes. If we totally ignore the mental processes like the behaviorists did then we would be adopting a very narrow approach and would get an incomplete picture of the dynamics of human behavior.

Cognitive psychologists believe that it is possible to study mental processes objectively. According to them the human mind is similar to a computer and acts on information just as the computer does.

The Psychoanalytic Perspective

The psychoanalytic approach is based on the ideas of Sigmund Freud. This perspective emphasizes that unconscious processes influence our behavior. These unconscious processes comprise of beliefs, fears, and desires that a person is unaware of but which nevertheless influence his behavior.

According to the psychoanalytic approach, we are born with certain aggressive and sexual impulses that are forbidden from expressing them by our parents and the society. As a result they merely move out from awareness in to the unconsciousness. However, these impulses do not disappear but expresses themselves through socially accepted behaviors or in the form of mental illness and emotional problems. For example, a person may express his aggressive instincts by taking part in violent sports such as boxing and wrestling.

The Subjectivist Perspective

The subjectivist perspective emphasizes on the importance of perception. According to this approach human behavior does not depend on the objective world but it is a function of the perceived world.

The objective world is what truly exits in the real world. The perceived world is what the individual experiences and the meaning he gives to those experiences. How a person perceives the world or a situation depends on his culture, personal history, and present motives.

According to the subjectivist approach, perceptions are very important in understanding behavior because an individual’s behavior at any time is based in part on perceptions of the situation. Our responses to the various stimuli in the environment are based on our perceptions. We define reality based on our perceptions. For example, studies have found that people tend to overestimate the physical size of higher value coins than for coins of lower value.

An interesting psychological phenomenon that this approach highlights is native realism-the tendency of people to see their subjective construction of the world, as a true and accurate picture of the objective world.

According to Early Childhood Education Training the influence of the subjectivist approach has been strong in social and personality psychology. For instance, how people interpret other people’s behavior depends on their perception.

The different perspectives discussed above represents the different modern approaches to the study of psychology. They are not mutually exclusive but merely focus attention on different aspects of the same subject. In other words, the different approaches are merely different ways of studying the same phenomenon. Many psychologists take an electric approach. They take the best of each approach and use it to study complex psychological issues.

Out of the five perspectives discussed, with the exception of the biological perspective all other approaches (behavioral, cognitive, psychoanalytic and subjectivist) are purely psychological in nature. The biological approach, however takes, takes help from other fields such as physiology and other branches of biology.

The biological approach has often been described as reductionism. In reductionism psychological notions (ideas) are reduced to biological ones. That is, different psychological issues are explained with biological reasons.

However, it must be noted that is not possible to follow the reductionist path for all psychological issues. Psychological explanations are also very important. Psychological concepts, findings and principles serve as the starting point for biological scientists to conduct their research. For example, psychological findings regarding memory will direct biological researches to search for the different areas of the brain involved in it. Besides, any explanation of various psychological phenomenon without taking in to account our past and current environment would be an incomplete one.

How to Do Research for the Award of a PhD Degree in Management Studies?

The Main goals of Ph.D. research

The evaluators check for the certain important outcomes of the research for Ph.D.

(a)The main aim of effort for Ph.D. award should be creation of new knowledge.

(b)The insights should be useful to the industry or academic community.

(c ) It should bridge the gap between what the current knowledge is and what knowledge is required.

(d) It should clear the suspicions, or find answers to major questions which have been lingering in the minds of practitioners and academics for quite long. These questions are called ‘ dilemmas ‘ or ‘hypotheses’.

What does not qualify to be called ‘research for Ph.D.’:

1. Collection of material from different sources and writing a voluminous book does not qualify to be called ‘ Ph.D. research’. Ph.D. research is not about writing a book.

2. Writing a thesis based on a few books or a few newspaper articles or internet sites is not Ph.D. research.

3. Ph.D. is not a survey with some questions ( like: Are you married? How many children have you? How long are you employed? Which soap do you prefer? )or some kind of form- filling feedback. The research should use standard instruments (also called measures, scales, standard scales and published scales).

How to Go About Research for Ph. D. in Management Studies?

1. The researcher has to do extensive literature review; he has to download as many as 500 research articles from online libraries like: ebscohost, emeraldinsight, proquest, jostor etc. The primary purpose of literature review is: identification of research gaps. It means that you have to understand where extant research has stopped or what is left un-researched. The gap so found can be converted into hypotheses.

2. Hypotheses -framing (hypotheses formulation or identification of hypotheses) is the most critical part of research. Hypotheses are the research questions or dilemmas that the academic community is faced with and are waiting to be resolved by a scholar like you.

3. A hypothesis looks like a question. For example, ‘Are women more satisfied than men on their jobs?’ is a hypothesis. This is just an example. (This might have already been resolved by a research scholar like you.) Ideally, a Ph.D. thesis should comprise resolution of 10-50 most critical and interesting hypotheses.

4. Literature review reveals to you what hypotheses were already resolved and you don’t have to solve again. Literature does not mean anything that you find in the newspapers, magazines, websites, textbooks etc. Literature should primarily comprise the articles made based on empirical research. Empirical research is the one done based on experiments, observations and data collected with scientifically-developed research instruments. Research articles are found in scholarly journals, particularly online journals carried by online libraries like emeraldinsight, jstor, proquest, ebscohost etc.

5. Literature review, if diligently done, will provide the researcher with a proper background of his research for logical documentation. The background presented in the thesis will explain how the subject or research question evolved or how it was understood till now, where it stands now and what the researcher is going to do on that.

6. Literature review gives: (1) research questions/ hypotheses,(2) justification for the study/ research topic.

7. It is needless to say that research topic should be identified only after extensive literature review. It is quite sad that the universities ask for research topic and hypotheses at the time of application for enrollment itself (at a time when the candidate did not read even a single research article yet). Ideally, the universities should have identified research questions/hypotheses; but it is never the case with our universities over here.

8. While doing literature review, the important findings should be noted. These notes are the main part of the thesis under heads like: introduction, background, literature review, etc. All the referred articles should be properly listed under References. There should be cross linkages between the articles noted in the references list and text in the thesis. What you note in the main text is called ‘in-text citation’. It means that if you have something in the list of references, it should appear in the main text. In-text citation looks like (for example): (Meesala, 2011). This should be expanded in the references list. The way these references are noted is called, ‘academic referencing style’, ‘academic format’, ‘academic style’ etc.

9. The referencing style follows certain order in noting authors’ names, year of publication etc. and also the punctuation. Read the information by Googling. There are many academic formats like Harvard style, APA style, MLA style, CMS style etc.

10. Referencing for your thesis is very easy if you are familiar with how to use ‘References’ in MS Word 2007.

What To Do After Identification Of Hypotheses?

If there are no hypotheses identified, there is no research at all. Research on management issues is about resolving the hypotheses, not book-writing, mind you. Hypotheses formulation is followed by research design. Research design is about determining how to collect the data (primary data) and how it has to be analysed.

When hypotheses are clearly identified, the constructs are clearly identified and available in your hands. (Examples for constructs are: personality type, job satisfaction, engagement, commitment, and innovative behavior). In your research based on your hypotheses, you may have to deal with 15 to 20 constructs. For each construct, there is a specific, standard, published instrument ( also called ‘questionnaire’,’measure’, or ‘scale’). An instrument is a set of questions whose reliability and validity are already established. Visit this site for some scales. This is an e-handbook of management scales.

You can find many marketing scales in one book if you are affiliated to a big library like the one in Indian School of Business. Search Google for “Marketing Scales”.

What to do if ready research scales are not found in the published journals/books?

It is not possible to find a scale for every construct that is related to your research.

You have to construct the scale yourself.

The process is: (1) conduct a meeting of some experts, and with their help, generate as many statements as possible, on that particular construct. Delete all the duplicates. With the remaining items, conduct a pilot survey. Do item analysis by arranging all the responses to an item in ascending order and finding t-statistic for two groups of extreme responses. If the t-value is 1.75 or more, the item is good and can be retained. After that, for all the items in the construct, find out Cronbach’s alfa. If the Cronbach’s alfa is more than 0.60, the construct is reliable. Reliability means that the items (statements in the questions) are well-correlated. It is the average of item-to-item correlations. Further, the researcher has to work out Content Validity Index. If the index is more than 4.00, the scale can be considered a valid scale. Search Google for content validity index.

It should be noted with care, that questionnaire should relate to hypotheses but not any questions that occur to an innocent researcher’s mind.

The instrument, of course, should contain a section consisting of questions about the respondents’ profile like age, gender, income, length of service etc. The data on these items can be later checked for their relationship with other constructs.

Determination of Sample Size

Sample means the number of respondents from whom the responses on the questionnaires should be taken (with how many respondents the questionnaires are to be administered).

Sample size should be large enough. The number may be in the range of 200 to 1000. A large sample only is valid and valuable. The research done on a large sample only earns the respect of academics and research scholar community.

Sample size is determined by the size of the population, expected standard deviation, and confidence interval. There are formulae for sample determination. They are: Cocheran’s formula and Slovin’s formula. For learning more about them, Google-search those terms and use the formulae.

One important point to note is that the validity of your research is improved by randomized sample but not by selection of respondents by convenience.

Tabulation and Analysis

All the collected responses should be entered in an Excel Sheet. One row should be allotted to enter the data given in one questionnaire. For 500 filled questionnaires, 500 rows should be allotted. Data entered in Excel sheet can easily be imported into SPSS for analysis.

The tabulation of data is made easier by use of MS Excel. For high quality analysis, use SPSS (Statistical Procedures for Social Sciences). Even without SPSS software too, alternatively, Data Analysis Tool Pack in MS Excel can be used. With the help of this, descriptive statics, regression analysis, inter-correlations, Anova tests etc. can be done.

Report -Writing

For report-writing, skills in paragraph-writing, making the table of contents, and making of thesis statement, tie-in/transitional phrases, tie-in words, topic sentence etc. are critical. Particularly, English language should be idiomatic and grammatically correct.

Surviving Graduate School: What to Do in Class

Just because you’re in graduate school doesn’t mean that you will be an expert in every graduate school class you take. Maybe you have been in the corporate world and have forgotten how to play the academic game. Maybe your success as an undergraduate was mostly due to your good test-taking or essay-writing abilities, and you managed to graduate despite your tendencies not to go to class or pay attention. However, graduate school is another level entirely, and you need to be your best during class to survive. Below are some tips about what you can do if you find yourself having issues in a graduate school class.

Choose your seat wisely.

Don’t doom yourself to failure by sitting at the back of class with all the other students constantly texting and coming in late. Do yourself a favor by sitting in front, ensuring the professor knows who you are and increasing your chances of paying attention. You should sit around people whom you know will not distract you, as you will need to pay a lot of attention in every graduate school class.

Master note taking.

Even if you won’t go over your notes later, you are giving yourself a task during class that involves listening to the professor. If you do intend to study your notes, make sure that you take the time to organize your work and to make it easy to find later.

Have a snack.

There’s nothing wrong with eating in a graduate school class. Just make sure that this doesn’t bother your professor and that you are quiet enough to be courteous to other students. Giving your brain and body a little boost during a boring lecture can do wonders for your retention and memory later. A hidden benefit is to your time management; you’re saving time by eating and learning!

Ask questions.

Asking questions yields several benefits. Firstly, asking questions forces you to listen to what your professor is saying. Also, you will be more likely to retain the information because you are actively engaging in the graduate school class lecture. Finally, your professor will believe that you genuinely care about his or her course (whether or not this is truly the case).

Make friends.

Having connections in graduate school class is invaluable to your education. For example, if you do have to miss a day of class, you can ask the other students whom you have gotten to know for any material that you missed. Knowing other students is yet another factor that will encourage you to show up to every class. Also, friends might turn into study buddies later down the road; knowing students in every class is also one of our networking tips.

What If I Don’t Get Into the School of My Choice?

So you didn’t get into the school of choice, now what? Whatever happens, do not give up on your dreams of going to college. A higher education is very important in the world we live in today. If you don’t get into your first choice school you may have to start out at a junior college and then apply to the school of your choice. This can actually be a great way to get in.

As many as 25% of freshmen drop out in the first year, overall about 33% of students drop out in college. This means that if you wait and apply for that perfect school in your sophomore or junior year you probably have a better chance of getting in. First of all you have proved that you are not going to quit and second, the school has more space for sophomores, juniors and seniors.

There is a lot of pressure put on students to choose a big name school or at least a large University.

There are many reasons to choose a smaller school. The first and probably most important is class size. You are going from High School where your largest class was probably only 40 students to a college where the classes can be a big a several hundred. That alone can be tough to handle. By going to a smaller school you can attend smaller classes and work your way into the college atmosphere; after all, there are a lot of changes in your life going from High School to college.

By attending a Junior college you will be able to complete your general admission classes, explore your major and decide if that truly is what you want to do. It is very common for students to change majors. According to Dr. Fritz Grupe, founder of an online school resource website, 50% of college-bound students change majors two to three times. Don’t be afraid to say that you really don’t want to be a music major, but want to study English! The first few years of college are perfect for trying out new classes. Then by the time you are a junior your general admission classes are done and you probably have a good idea of what you want to study. You may even find that your first choice school is no longer where you want to study. Remember as you go through school nothing is set in stone. You do want to pick a major as soon as you can, but don’t worry about changing.

Overall, don’t panic if you don’t get into your first choice school. There are many other options out there for you. If you have done your homework in High School you have another option already chosen. If not look around and find another school to apply to. The most important thing is not to give up on going to college.

Fulfill Your Dream and Career Goals Through the Business Analytics Course

In the present era, the Data Scientists or the analytics are in high demand. Their occupation is extremely renowned as well as prominent amongst each and every individual. In fact, now a day’s youngsters want this specific occupation as the reliable career option.

What is the profession all about?

As you known people cannot live without oxygen, and as similar as that Data is the first and foremost option for them. The have their specific work based on numbers including the statistics collection and also optimizing. The scientist works on certain figures optimization, and they also have to carry the precise value of the stats. They actually cannot create the ultimate solution, but they have to deliver the best solution that they can provide.

Advantages of this particular job

In this recent marketplace, there is the particular standard issue towards the safe as well as secure job. Each and every youngster needs a reliable job in their career. One just has to be aware to get the proficient job in an extremely popular company.

At the present time people are very picky towards their job, they always are in search for best career breaks. This time, the job of the Business analytics course is very familiar.

Amongst all of the other career opportunities you can easily go for this particular course, which will help you in accomplishing the ultimate goal in profession. Basically, this is one of the reliable career options as the beginner. One can easily gain the vast knowledge of this job only by joining any institute. This can be a trustworthy job for every individual. Firstly, one should have a profound knowledge related to this job so that they can quickly catch the pros and cons by joining any organization.

A definite overview of this job

If an individual has a keen interest in data research job or they are virtually looking for the similar job, or they want to make their career in this kind of job then they must get the profound idea about what the job is all about. This particular certification provides the bunch of benefits that one can easily enjoy at its fullest.

Some of the people out there always love to manage this kind of project and have the charm towards the Business analytics course; they can apply for teachings at any institute. Once, they complete the relevant drill, they will be able to implement this training in many places and can make worthy uses of it.

So, if they you have the great ambition towards this job, they can get so many institutions to take the coaching. Ample of organizations are there provide the best training along with upgraded technologies. But whenever you go to take the training program you only have to go for the best place. You can easily increase the knowledge just by joining any of the commercial institutes.

One of the finest parts to join an association is that you will be supervised by lots of occupational professionals or subject experts. You can also discuss on any organization work along with them. In fact, you can also get from any famous and well-known company; you can get any worthy job related to this at anywhere. Choosing the proper organization and dealing with them will help you in accomplishing the right kind of career option.